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Equality Act 2010

In the UK, the Disability Discrimination Act 1995 (the DDA 1995) was the first anti-discrimination legislation affording disabled people protection. It culminated in the Equality Act 2010 (the EqA 2010) which is part of...

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European Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms

The European Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms (ECHR) is widely regarded as the most effective international instrument for the protection of individual rights1. It went a step further beyond...

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Universal Declaration of Human Rights

In the new world order following the Second World War, equality was elevated to a fundamental human right by virtue of the United Nations (UN) Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR)1 which recognises the...

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Substantive equality

In contrast to formal equality, substantive equality is a call for a duty upon the state to take positive measures to promote equality, including allocation of resources1, resulting in a direct redistribution of resources...